After Ghana attained its independence on 6 March 1957, the Parliament of Ghana passed the Avoidance of Discrimination Act, 1957 (C.A. 38), which banned all parties and organizations that were confined to or identifiable to any racial, ethnic or religious groups with effect form 31 December 1957. The essence of the Act was:
“An Act to prohibit organizations using or engaging in tribal, regional, racial and religious propaganda to the detriment of any community, or securing the election of persons on account of their tribal, regional or religious affiliations and for other purpose connected therewith”.
This law meant that all the existing political parties would become illegal. These parties included the Northern People's Party, Muslim Association Party, National Liberation Movement (NLM), Anlo Youth Organization, Togoland Congress and the Ga Shifimokpee. They therefore merged under the leadership of Kofi Abrefa Busia, leader of the NLM as the United Party.
The party's effectiveness as the opposition suffered when it was no more recognized as the official opposition after Ghana became a republic in 1960. In September 1962, the National Assembly passed a resolution calling for a one-party state. This was accepted following a referendum in January 1964. This effectively sounded the death of all opposition parties in Ghana and this situation persisted until February 24, 1966 when the Nkrumah government was overthrown in a coup d'état.
The following parties all claimed their roots from the "UGCC - UP tradition": Progress Party - led by Busia and formed Busia government between 1969 and 1972; Popular Front Party - led by Victor Owusu, was the largest opposition party between 1979 and 1981; New Patriotic Party - led by John Kufuor, President of Ghana (January 2001 - January 2009). The NPP, led by Nana Akuffo-Addo has been the government in power since January 2017, on a 4 year mandate.