October 23, 1881: Rev. Timothy Laing, early "native missionary" for the Wesleyan Church passed away.

Rev. Timothy Laing was a “native assistant missionary” for the Wesleyan Mission in the Gold Coast. In 1860, he and his assistant W. A Hanson authored a book Fantse Akenkan Ahyease the first text in Fante, which spurred on broad efforts in improving Fante literacy. Such efforts were continued by the likes of J B Anaman who contributed further texts, primers and translated books into secular Fante during the second half and final decades of the 19th Century.

Laing also spent time in Kumasi in 1852 trying to persuade Kwaku Dua I to allow his subjects to convert to Christianity. The king was not enthusiastic about this and his subjects were afraid to draw his ire, should they convert to the new religion.

He worked in Anomabo, Abasa, Asafa, Esuehyia and Ajumako in charge of the “Anomabo Circuit”. He was the father of Timothy Laing who was one of the early editors of the Gold Coast Times. The Wesleyan Mission established Wesleyan High School on April 3, 1876, the forerunner of Mfantsipim School.

October 21, 1954: Asanteman Council formally endorses the National Liberation Movement (NLM)

The National Liberation Movement (NLM) began in September 1954. On October 21, 1954, the Asantehene’s Council adopted a formal resolution endorsing a federal form of governance for the Gold Coast. The Okyehene, Nana Ofori- Atta II who was the Chair of the Joint Provincial Council of Chiefs (JPC) was more circumspect in insisting on political neutrality of chiefs. However, in December 1954, he very publicly honored his uncle JB Danquah. He had lost his seat in Kyebi to his nephew Aaron Ofori-Atta and left for the US for a UN fellowship. On his return from the US, he immediately announced his support for the NLM. There was less consensus among Akyem chiefs regarding support for the NLM as the Adontenhene Kwabena Kena II, for example was a CPP supporter.

his return from the US, JB Danquah was appointed a senior divisional chief in the Adonten Division of the Kyebi royal house, apparently without consulting Kwabena Kena II.  In the legislature, Aaron Ofori-Atta criticized this appointment, suggesting it was contrary to customary law and a waste of public funds and further alleged that JB Danquah was being paid an annual salary of £600 for the role.

This declaration by the Asanteman council caused some other chiefs to rebel against the center. The Bechemhene for example was destooled in December 1954 and other chiefs from Amansie, Atebubu, Dormaa and others fearing loss of development projects in their areas, cast their lot with the CPP. Brong chiefs in general, saw this as an opportunity to free themselves from Asante domination and seek a new region for themselves. However, by the end of 1955 the NLM had full control of local politics in Ashanti (NLM -17; CPP – 11). The role of chiefs in Ghana’s political life remains unresolved.

October 20, 1948: Birthday of Alice Annum, champion sprinter.

Alice Annum [Baby Jet] (born 20 October 1948 in Accra) is a retired Ghanaian sprinter. Her personal best time in the 200 meters was 22.89 seconds, achieved at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich.

Annum was one of many athletes through the defunct National Sports Festivals organised annually in Ghana. She benefited from the sponsorship of Ghanaian athletes by the United States. She competed in the 1964 Olympic Games but did not advance past the preliminary stages in the long jump, placing 28th with a best jump of 5.45 meters.

She won gold at the All Africa Games in long jump in 1965 and in the 100 m and 200 m in 1973. She was a silver medalist in the 1970 British Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh in the 100 and 200 m. In 1974 she won the bronze medal for the 200 m at the British Commonwealth Games in Christchurch, New Zealand.

She placed 6th and 7th in the 100 and 200 m respectively, at the 1972 Munich Olympic Games.

She was honored in 2010 for her achievements in sports by the Action Progressive Institute in Ghana.

October 18, 1895: Adansi sign on for British protection

The chief of Adansi Kobina Obeng in 1873 had sought to be independent of Ashanti by virtue of his geographic position close to the British protectorate, just north of River Pra. After Kumasi was sacked by Sir Garnett Wolseley, and Kofi Karikari had been dethroned, his successor, Mensah Bonsu after his enstoolment late in 1874, made every effort to regain lost Ashanti dependencies. He was able over a period of a few years to do so, except for Kwahu and Adansi.

During the Ashanti interregnum, the Adansis remained a divided state. Some continued to claim British protection under the Treaty of Fomena and others wanting to return to Ashanti. In this unsettled state, under the leadership of a compromise chief, Nkansa Brempong, a great deal of trouble occurred, including murdering, kidnapping and robbing Ashanti traders as they passed through their territory. In April 1886, over 150 Ashanti traders were murdered for the sake of their goods. The Ashantis, particularly from Bekwai, who had the majority of victims, retaliated, killing 60 Adansis and driving over 12,000 of them south across the Pra, into the protectorate. Fomena and all Adansi villages were set ablaze.

Mensa Bonsu favored a diplomatic solution to the Adansi problem but a war party under the leadership of Kobina Awua developed against the king’s wishes. This faction encouraged Kofi Karikari to attempt to regain the throne of Ashanti.

Eventually after years of chaos, Kwaku Dua III (Prempeh I) was enstooled as Asantehene in March 1888 with the Asante nation in a fragmented state. The Adansi’s and Kokofus broke out in open rebellion. Prempeh I, the 16 year old king, repelled the first onslaught and asked the British not to allow attacks on Ashanti from the protectorate, south of the River Pra. His weak political position made Ashanti now a target for the British. With the fall of Ashanti to the British all but signed off on paper, the Adansis finally signed to join the British Protectorate on October 18, 1895.

The treaty was largely based on previous treaties between Britain and African landowners from 1889. The primary signatory was Kweku Inkansa, King of Adansi. The key clause in the treaty was Article VII, which stated that the Crown would not prevent the Adansi leaders from collecting revenues and administering their territory. However, after the Ashanti Confederation was dissolved with the overthrow of King Prempeh I, the surrounding sovereign territories of Ashanti were also effectively annexed by the British, voiding treaties such as this one.

October 17, 1921: Yaa Asantewaa, Queenmother of Ejisu dies in the Seychelles

October 17, 1921: Yaa Asantewaa, Queenmother of Ejisu dies in the Seychelles

Yaa Asantewaa, who led the formidable but ultimately unsuccessful resistance to British colonial rule of the Asante Kingdom from April 1900 to March 1901 was born at Besease, a small town south of Ejisu about 12 miles from Kumasi the capital of the Asante Kingdom. She was a member of Asona royal clan and her brother Nana Kwesi Afrane Okpese was one of the two principal war leaders who supported the installment of Kwaku Dua III also known as Prempeh I against the rival faction led by Twereboana and his supporters from Mampong, Nsuta and Kokofu. Her brother was the protector of the Golden stool of the Asante nation. In 1887 when the female stool of Ejisu became vacant, Nana Kwesi Afrane Okpese, appointed his sister Yaa Asantewaa as the Queen Mother of Ejisu.

October 17, 1816: Philip Quaque, first African to be ordained by the Anglican Church, dies in Cape Coast

Born in 1741,Kweku (Quaicoe, Quaque) was one of three Fante children taken to England for education by a missionary from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 1754. British merchants were well-established at Cape Coast castle when Quaque was born. When he was a child, Anglican missionaries under the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG) began to expand their efforts in Gold Coast, eventually with an eye to recruit African missionaries. With help from family connections, the SPG chose to send Quaque to London for schooling in religious and missionary work.

Of the three children, Thomas Cobbers died in 1758, while William Cudjoe suffered a mental breakdown and died in 1766. Kweku fared better. The two brothers were baptised at St Mary's Church, Islington on 7 January 1759, which they had attended for four years. Kweku took the name Philip. In London, he studied theology and in 1765 was ordained in the Church of England. Phillip Quaque was the first African to be ordained as a minister of the Church of England. The same year, he married Catherine Blunt, an English woman, and the two returned to Cape Coast the following year.

The Royal African Company employed Quaque as the chaplain at Cape Coast Castle. He set up a small school in his own house, "especially for the training of Mulatto children who were growing in large numbers" and attempted to work as a missionary, but having forgotten most of his native tongue, Fante, he was unable to make any conversions and experienced difficulty connecting with the natives. His wife died within a year of their arrival at Cape Coast. He married twice more, these times to African women, and in 1784 sent his two children for education in London.

Because of his African heritage and English training, Quaque stood at the intersection of two different cultural, religious, and racial worlds.

Quaque is remembered for his influence on both early Christian missions and schooling in Gold Coast. He corresponded with Anglican officials, laypeople, politicians, and other people of African descent around the Atlantic, and much of that writing has been preserved. In spite of his many letters to the SPG, the only wrote back to him three times over the five he worked in Cape Coast. During this period, he worked to promote the Anglican faith in the Gold Coast. Unfortunately, he faced numerous setbacks in his efforts. Many locals were happy to listen to missionaries as long as they gave out food and drink, but were not interested in converting to Christianity. Quaque was not regularly compensated by either the SPG or the merchant group that ran Cape Coast castle, so he was forced to barter in the local marketplace for food and supplies. This proved to be more than just inconvenient, as both organizations accused him of either focusing too much on commerce or too little on his mission. While he often wrote that his mission lacked success, Quaque’s schools trained a generation of students who would—along with their descendants—rise to prominence in Gold Coast society. In the long term, his work achieved much and his volumes of correspondence are valuable in the ways they show Gold Coast society from a unique perspective.

 

October 16, 1956: Conference on form of government deadlocked, with Asante and Northern Territories pushing for federal government

1956 was a banner year in Ghana's push to become the first sub-Saharan African country to break from European colonial rule. On October 16, 1956 a conference called to reconcile competing visions for the imminence of sovereignty for the Gold Coast, reached no agreement.  About a month later, the legislative asembly voted to resolve the question in favor of a constitution for a unitary government, with a margin of 70 to 25. The 1956 election saw Kwame Nkrumah's Convention People's Party win 71 of 104 seats in the Legislative Assembly and self-governance was imminent. On August 3 the assembly voted for independence from Great Britain.

Simon Diedong Dombo was the leader of the Northern People's Party, who were advocating for a system of government recognizing his region's distinct identity

Simon Diedong Dombo was the leader of the Northern People's Party, who were advocating for a system of government recognizing his region's distinct identity

On October 16 a conference was held between leaders from different regions of the emerging country to decide on a path toward governance. While Nkrumah's CPP proposed a Parliamentary form of government with all regions of the country operating under a unitary constitution, the leaders from Ashanti Region and the Northern Territories were in favor of a federal system of rule that would recognize each region's distinct identities, allowing them to continue with a degree of sovereignty.

On October 13, 1892, David Asante, seminal African Basel missionary and author of the Twi Bible, died in Akropong

 

Rev. David Asante was the first African educated in Europe by the Basel missionaries. They were a protestant but non-denominational mission. A major focus for the mission was to create employment opportunities for the people of the area where each mission is located. To this end the society taught printingtile manufacturing, and weaving, and employed people in these fields.

David Asante’s work largely occurred in the Eastern region of Ghana, in Akropong and the Akyem Abuakwa State. He is remembered significantly for not so much his missionary work, but his scholarly work in the field of linguistics. He contributed significantly to the translation of the Bible into Twi and is thus the author of the Twi Bible that is in use to this day. He worked with the linguist Johann Gottlieb Christaller, helping him to collect Twi words and idioms. After returning from Switzerland, he continued his work on Twi grammar and a dictionary. Asante personally translated several books into Twi, including John Bunyan's "The Pilgrims Progress" and a general history which together with his letters to Christaller, constitute some of the earliest texts ever written in the Twi language. He died in Akropong on October 13, 1892.

A link to his biography follows:

https://dacb.org/stories/ghana/asante-d/

On October 13, 1957, the United Party was formed under the leadership of Dr. K. A. Busia

After Ghana attained its independence on 6 March 1957, the Parliament of Ghana passed the Avoidance of Discrimination Act, 1957 (C.A. 38), which banned all parties and organizations that were confined to or identifiable to any racial, ethnic or religious groups with effect form 31 December 1957. The essence of the Act was:

“An Act to prohibit organizations using or engaging in tribal, regional, racial and religious propaganda to the detriment of any community, or securing the election of persons on account of their tribal, regional or religious affiliations and for other purpose connected therewith”.

This law meant that all the existing political parties would become illegal. These parties included the Northern People's PartyMuslim Association PartyNational Liberation Movement (NLM), Anlo Youth OrganizationTogoland Congress and the Ga Shifimokpee. They therefore merged under the leadership of Kofi Abrefa Busia, leader of the NLM as the United Party.

The party's effectiveness as the opposition suffered when it was no more recognized as the official opposition after Ghana became a republic in 1960. In September 1962, the National Assembly passed a resolution calling for a one-party state. This was accepted following a referendum in January 1964. This effectively sounded the death of all opposition parties in Ghana and this situation persisted until February 24, 1966 when the Nkrumah government was overthrown in a coup d'état.

The following parties all claimed their roots from the "UGCC - UP tradition": Progress Party - led by Busia and formed Busia government between 1969 and 1972; Popular Front Party - led by Victor Owusu, was the largest opposition party between 1979 and 1981; New Patriotic Party - led by John KufuorPresident of Ghana (January 2001 - January 2009). The NPP, led by Nana Akuffo-Addo has been the government in power since January 2017, on a 4 year mandate.

 

On October 12, 1988, the PNDC government establishes the Judicial Council

On October 12, 1988, the PNDC government announced the establishment of a judicial council in the wake of criticisms from the Ghana Bar Association that the absence of such a council undermined the judiciary and encouraged corruption.

The Judicial Council, is chaired by the Chief Justice, with representation from key stakeholders in the area of justice delivery, including the Police, the Bar Association, Judicial Staff, the Attorney General, Justices representing the various levels of the Court system, a Chief from the House of Chiefs as well as some appointees, continued as a feature of the 1992 Constitution.

The functions of the Judicial Council include: (a) to propose for the consideration of Government, judicial reforms to improve the level of administration of justice and efficiency in the Judiciary; (b) to be a forum for consideration and discussion of matters relating to the discharge of the functions of the Judiciary and thereby assist the Chief Justice in the performance of his/her duties with a view to ensuring efficiency and effective realization of justice; and (c) to perform any other functions conferred on it by or under this Constitution or any other law not inconsistent with the Constitution. In addition, the Judicial Council may establish such committees as it considers necessary to which it shall refer matters relating to the Judiciary.

October 9 1975, Supreme Military Council is formed

The Supreme Military Council (SMC) was the ruling government of Ghana from October 9, 1975 to June 4, 1979. Its chairman was Colonel I.K. Acheampong. He was also the Head of state of Ghana due to his chairmanship. He abruptly dissolved the National Redemption Council (NRC) which had been in power since January 13, 1972 and effectively brought the Armed Forces heads into the government through the SMC. The SMC thus became the highest administrative and legislative body of the country. The council consisted of the Head of state and all service commanders of the Ghana Armed Forces. The head of the police was also included. General Acheampong was overthrown in a palace coup by General F.W. K. Akuffo on July 5, 1978. The SMC II was overthrown by the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council on June 4, 1979. This was a bloody coup during which one of the SMC members, the Army Commander Major General Odartey-Wellington was killed. The June 4 coup was preceded by an abortive attempt on May 15, 1979 when Flt. Lt. Jerry Rawlings and other ranks were arrested. General Acheampong was executed by firing squad at the Teshie Military Range on June 16, 1979.

On October 7, 1886, Krepi joined the British Colony of the Gold Coast

There has been a great deal of uncertainty as regards the delimitation of the area known as Krepi, Krepee or Crepee. Krepis are Ewes who settled in the central part of the present-day Volta Region of Ghana. The Ewe migrated from Notsie in groups consisting of lineages led by religious leaders, probably in the mid-17th century. On arriving at their present home, these lineages developed into traditional units or 'dukowo', independent small States. They developed kingship institutions, borrowed from their neighbours, particularly the Akan. However, they never formed a single political unit but remained a loose collection of small political States. By 1700 there were about 120 such small independent units. The alliances formed by the Krepi States during the Asante-Akwamu invasions of 1707-1833 broke up once peace was restored. On In 1850 Krepi became part of the British Protectorate. In line with the British colonial policy of indirect rule, all Krepi States were made to sign an agreement on October 7, 1886 joining the Gold Coast Colony, along with the southern part of Anlo and recognizing Kwadzo Dei, Chief of Peki, as 'head chief'. However, Kwadzo Dei's position as paramount chief over other Krepi States was short-lived. In 1890, Krepiland was partitioned between Britain and Germany. A sizeable part of Kwadzo Dei's confederacy was ceded to Germany, deepening Ewe fragmentation.

On October 4, 1977, The Koranteng-Addow Commission presents its "Union Government" report.

By 1977, Gen. Acheamong’s Supreme Military Council (SMC) found itself constrained by mounting nonviolent opposition. Discussions about the nation's political future and its relationship to the SMC had begun in earnest. A committee set up by the Supreme Military Council in January 1977 to consider the “Union Government” proposals, presented its report on the fourth of October 1977. The committee chaired by Dr. Gustav G Koranteng-Addow recommended an executive president selected by adult suffrage from a list presented by an electoral college. It also suggested at 140 member legislature of candidates who would run as independents without connection to a political party.

Although the various opposition groups (university students, lawyers, and other organized civilian groups) called for a return to civilian constitutional rule, Acheampong and the SMC favored a union government—a mixture of elected civilian and appointed military leaders—but one in which party politics would be abolished. University students and many intellectuals criticized the union government idea, but the Justice Gustav Koranteng Addow, seventeen-member ad hoc committee appointed by the government to work out details of the plan, defended it as the solution to the nation's political problems. Supporters of the Union Government idea viewed multiparty political contests as the perpetrators of social tension and community conflict among classes, regions, and ethnic groups. Unionists argued that their plan had the potential to depoliticize public life and to allow the nation to concentrate its energies on economic problems.

On Oct. 3, 1961, following the Railway Workers Strike, many arrests were made under the PDA

In a sudden move against opponents of the Government of the day, orders under the Preventive Detention Act were issued on Oct. 3 against 50 persons, the majority of whom were arrested on the same day. Those detained included Dr. J. B. Danquah, Mr. Joe Appiah, two other United Party M.P.s (Mr. Victor Owusu and Mr. S. G. Antor), and other U.P. leaders; a C.P.P. member of the Assembly– Mr. Quaidoo (Social Welfare Minister until April 1961); leaders of the recent strikes; and the editor of the Ashanti Pioneer, the independent Kumasi newspaper from which government control had been lifted in May, but in whose offices a government controller had again been installed on Sept. 10 in connection with the strikes. The Government stated that the arrests followed the uncovering of a number of subversive activities, including a plot to murder Dr. Nkrumah and other Ministers and to overthrow the regime. Subsequently (Oct. 7) the Government announced that it intended to publish a White Paper giving the full circumstances leading up to the arrests.

Eighteen railway men who had been involved in the strikes wore detained at Sekondi -Takoradi; five market women were detained in these two towns, and three more in Kumasi, following the action of market women in organizing the supply of food to the strikers; the city editor of the Ashanti Pioneer was arrested in Accra, in addition to the editor himself in Kumasi; while others detained included a number of teachers and merchants.

It was announced immediately after the arrests that one of the wanted men, Mr. Obetsebi Lamptey (a barrister), had escaped; although Government statements implied that the other 49 persons had all been detained, it was reported on Oct. 18 from Lome (capital of Togo) that four other men had also reached Togolese territory, including Mr. Kwow Richardson, Secretary-General of the U.P., and Mr. J. R. Baiden, secretary of the Maritime and Dock Workers’ Union in Takoradi-Sekondi.

On October 2, 1873, Sir Garnet Wolseley arrives in the Gold Coast as Governor.

Sir Garnet Wolseley was appointed Governor of the Gold Coast Protectorate on 13 August 1873 and went to the Gold Coast to make his plans before the arrival of his troops in January 1874. On 27 September 1873 a team of Royal Engineers landed at Cape Coast Castle. Their job was to expand the single file track that led to Kumasi 160 miles (260 km) away into a road that was suitable for troop movements. At the end of each day's march, roughly every 10 miles (16 km) a fortified camp would be built with 70 feet (21 m) long huts inside a stockade in an area that had been cleared of trees and undergrowth to provide some protection against hostile forces.

Bridges were built across streams using trees, bamboos and creepers for ropes and a major bridge across the 63 yards (58 m) River Pra was built using pre-manufactured pieces brought from Chatham, England. In total 237 bridges were built. Some of the camps were larger, such as at Prasu, next to the bridge, with a medical hut and a tower on a mound, stores, forge, telegraph office and post office. It was stocked with 400 tons of food and 1.1m rounds of ammunition. The labour was supplied locally. To start with, the locals did not know how to use European tools and would vanish into the forest if they heard a rumour that the Ashanti were nearby. Sickness, despite taking quinine daily, claimed many British engineers. Even so, the road progressed. By 24 January Prasu was reached with the telegraph line.

The first troops arrived in late December and from 1 January 1874 started marching along the road to the battle front, half a battalion at a time. The troops comprised a battalion from each of the Black Watch, Rifle Brigade and Royal Welsh Fusiliers, along with the 1st and 2nd West Indian Regiment, a Naval Brigade, two native regiments, Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers and Royal Marines. By 29 January, the road was more than half completed and they were close to Ashanti outposts. Skirmishing between the two forces had begun. Wolseley prepared to fight a battle, which came to be known as the “Sagrenti” War.

Wolseley commanded the expedition to the Ashanti, and, having made all his arrangements at the Gold Coast before the arrival of the troops in January 1874, was able to complete the campaign in two months and re-embark them for home before the unhealthy season began. This campaign made him a household name in Britain. 

On October 1, 1903, Trains reach Kumasi from the coast

Railway operations began in 1898 under the Gold Coast Civil Service with headquarters in Sekondi. The headquarters was transferred to Takoradi after the building of Takoradi Harbour, and railways and ports were jointly administered as the Ghana Railway & Ports Authority.  The 4th section of the railway reached Kumasi from Takoradi via Obuasi on October 1, 1903. The very first segment from Sekondi to Tarkwa was constructed in 1901.

The railway network in Ghana resembles a large capital "A" with 3 components - a "Western Division" (the left leg of the "A") from Secondi/Takoradi to Kumasi (280 km, 168 mi), an "Eastern Division" (the right leg of the "A") from Accra to Kumasi, and a "Central Division" (the horizontal bar of the "A") from Huni Valley to Kotoku. The 953 km (570 mi) network includes branch lines on the "Western Division" to Prestea and Awaso, a branch line to Kade on the "Central Division", and branch lines to Tema and Shai Hills on the "Eastern Division".

Very little of the railway network remains in operation. Accra to Tema, Accra to Kotoku, and Awaso to Dunkwa and south to Takoradi are the only parts that are known to be in operation. Very little is known about the current operating state of the rest of the system.

September Ghana History Moments in Review

On September 28, 1961 - Nkrumah demands surrender of private business interests from ministers

Dr. Nkrumah announced on Sept. 28 that he had requested the resignation of six members of the Government and the surrender of some of their private assets by six others. The resignations requested, in addition to those of Mr. Gbedemah (Health Minister) and Mr. Botsio (Agriculture Minister), were those of Mr. E. Ayeh Kumi, executive director of the Development Secretariat; Mr. E. K. Dadson, a Parliamentary Secretary; Mr. W. A. Wiafe, an Under-Secretary; and Mr. S. W. Yeboah, a Regional Commissioner. On Sept. 30, however, the President announced that he had rescinded his request for Mr. Yeboah's resignation. Four Ministers–Mr. Inkumsah (Interior), Mr. Edusei (Transport), Mr. Bensah (Works and Housing), and Mr. de Graft Dickson (Defence)–and two Regional Commissioners –Mr. E. H. T. Korboe and Mr. J. E. Hagan–agreed to surrender to the State properties in excess of the following limits: (1) more than two houses of a combined value of £20,000; (ii) more than two cars; and (iii) plots of land of a total value greater than £500. The President had also written to the Speaker of the Assembly, Mr. Joseph R. Asiedu, drawing his attention to “the extensive nature of his business interests” and asking him “to consider his own position in the light of this and of the principles adopted concerning members of the Government.” The President stated that his requests had been made in view of the report of the investigating Commission set up in May following his broadcast of April 28.  After stating that the Commission had found that some members of the Government had “varied business connections,” Dr. Nkrumah went on: “Although there is no evidence to support any allegation that these… interests led to any irregularity in their ministerial conduct, I have come to the conclusion that it is undesirable that men with varied business connections should be members of a Government which must from now on be increasingly animated by socialist ideals. Constant examination and correction is necessary if we are to fulfil great purposes for which we suffered so much in our early struggle…. If [However] some comrades who were prepared to suffer persecution, imprisonment, and poverty for the sake of independence have since fallen victims to some temptations of the capitalist world which surrounds us, we must understand the pressure to which they have been exposed and ask ourselves honestly how many of us would have done better.”

On September 25, 1901, the Ashanti Empire was formally annexed by Britain

Following the intermittent, century-long conflict between the British and the Ashanti Empire, the fifth Ashanti war culminated in the annexation of the Ashanti Empire into the British Gold Coast colony. After the exile of Asantehene Prempeh I to Seychelles, the Ashanti army succumbed to the British forces. The Queen Mother, Yaa Asantewaa, led the last stand of the Ashanti against the British troops and their Hausa allies, ultimately surrendering on July 17, 1900. Asantewaa and other Ashanti leaders were exiled to Seychelles to join Prempeh I.

The Ashanti crown colony was administered by a chief commissioner who reported to the governor of the Gold Goast. In 1935 the Ashanti Kingdom returned to self-rule and eventually joined the rest of the former territories of the Gold Coast which formed the independent nation of Ghana in 1957.

The Ashanti Royal Court upon the return of the Golden Stool and self rule in 1935.

The Ashanti Royal Court upon the return of the Golden Stool and self rule in 1935.

On September 23, 1895, Governor Maxwell of the Gold Coast issues a final ultimatum to Ashanti

William Edward Maxwell Prior to arriving in the Gold Coast was the Colonial Secretary of the Straits Settlements (Malay) in 1892, and was acting governor from September 1893 to January 1895.

In 1895, Maxwell was promoted to the governorship of the Gold Coast. Under his governorship the British declared war on the Asante Empire, the fourth Anglo-Ashanti War, known as the "Second Ashanti Expedition" in 1895. He fired a shot across the bow by sending an ultimatum to Asantehene, Prempeh I to accept British Protection and a resident in Kumasi or face war.

Following the Asantehene’s refusal to accept a resident, he used the Treaty of Fomena signed by the Asantes in 1874, but whose terms were widely considered as absurd and unenforcable, as a basis to invoke war. When the Asantehene Prempeh I could not meet the terms, Maxwell had him arrested against all convention, together with his mother, father, brother, uncles and a dozen advisors. They were later exiled to the Seychelles, not returning to the Gold Coast (now Ghana) until the 1924.